The Groundwater Project

The Elmvale Groundwater Observatory

A Facility Developed to Sample Pristine Artesian Groundwater for Trace Elements

William Shotyk Cover Page
Año de publicación: 2024
Número de páginas: 103
Autores:

William Shotyk
Beatriz Bicalho
Chad W. Cuss
Iain Grant-Weaver
Muhammad Babar Javed
Michael Krachler
Tommy Noernberg
Michael A. Powell
Jiancheng (James) Zheng

Inscríbase a nuestra lista de correos

Mantente informado sobre los nuevos lanzamientos de libros, eventos y formas de participar en el Proyecto de Aguas Subterráneas.

Invalid email address
Cuando te inscribes a nuestra lista de correos electrónicos nos ayudas a construir una comunidad mundial de aguas subterráneas.

Released: 13 March 2024

Descripción

Even in the most pristine groundwater, all naturally occurring trace elements are found in varying concentrations. Some of these elements are essential for human health (e.g., molybdenum), others are benign (e.g., strontium), and still others are potentially toxic (e.g., lead). Added to these naturally occurring trace elements are those introduced anthropogenically.

To quantify and understand the impacts of various human activities on groundwater quality, it is vital to establish reliable background concentrations of trace elements for comparison. In this book, we describe work conducted at the Elmvale Groundwater Observatory, a dedicated research facility for sampling pristine, flowing, artesian groundwater while minimizing the risk of sample contamination. We summarize the experience we have gained to date regarding selection of well construction materials, the design and use of laminar-flow, clean-air cabinets, and the importance of appropriate plastic sampling bottles and cleaning procedures—measures intended to minimize trace elements in blank samples (i.e., samples containing distilled water). The book includes a summary of trace element concentrations in pristine groundwater that will be useful for other studies. In addition to providing context and perspective, values in the summary also function as reference levels to allow comparison to pristine groundwater concentrations.

Interview with Authors

Contenido

1 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND

2 ARTESIAN FLOWS IN SPRINGWATER TOWNSHIP: TIMELINE FROM SCIENTIFIC CURIOSITY TO ANALYTICAL OBSESSION

2.1 1990 TO 2009: EARLY WORK ON EXISTING ARTESIAN FLOWS

2.2 2009 TO DATE: CREATION OF THE ELMVALE GROUNDWATER OBSERVATORY

2.2.1 EGO 1
2.2.2 EGO 2
2.2.3 EGO 3

3 MAJOR ION CHEMISTRY

4 TRITIUM ACTIVITY

5 DETERMINATION OF TRACE ELEMENTS USING ICP MS

6 TRACE ELEMENTS IN GROUNDWATER: INFLUENCE OF WELL CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS

7 TRACE ELEMENTS IN GROUNDWATER: WHICH PLASTIC BOTTLE IS BEST FOR SAMPLING?

7.1 EGO 1 RESULTS: INFLUENCE OF BOTTLE COMPOSITION

7.2 EGO 2 RESULTS: INFLUENCE OF BOTTLE COMPOSITION

7.3 EGO 1 RESULTS: INFLUENCE OF CLEANING PROCEDURE

7.4 EGO 2 RESULTS: INFLUENCE OF CLEANING PROCEDURE

7.5 VANADIUM FROM HDPE WELL CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND BOTTLES

7.6 POLYPROPYLENE: THE BEST BOTTLE FOR SAMPLING GROUNDWATER FOR TRACE ELEMENTS?

8 SWAMP LABORATORY CLEANING PROCEDURE FOR POLYPROPYLENE BOTTLES

9 FILTRATION

10 TRACE ELEMENTS IN CONTEMPORARY SNOW

11 LAMINAR FLOW CLEAN AIR CABINETS FOR GROUNDWATER SAMPLING WELLS

12 HOUSING THE WELLS OF THE ELMVALE GROUNDWATER OBSERVATORY

13 THE ABUNDANCE OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN PRISTINE GROUNDWATER

14 TRACE ELEMENTS IN GROUNDWATER, IN PERSPECTIVE

15 IMPLICATIONS AND APPLICATIONS

16 ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS

16.1 ANALYSES BY THE LABORATORY OF WATER AND SOIL PROTECTION

16.1.1 Materials and Methods
16.1.2 Results of the Laboratory Analyses
16.1.3 Conclusions

16.2 ANALYSES BY INNOTECH ALBERTA

17 WHY IS THIS GROUNDWATER SO CLEAN?

18 GEOLOGICAL CONTEXT

19 SUMMARY

20 EXERCISES

21 BOXES

BOX 1 – SAMPLED ARTESIAN FLOW IN THE AREA OF THE ELMVALE GROUNDWATER OBSERVATORY

BOX 2 – PUBLICATIONS ON CLEAN LAB METHODS, PROCEDURES, AND PROTOCOLS FOR TRACE ELEMENTS RESEARCH

BOX 3 – RECOMMENDED MATERIALS FOR RESEARCH ON TRACE ELEMENTS IN NATURAL WATER AND MATERIALS TO AVOID

BOX 4 – SUMMARY OF TRITIUM ACTIVITY MEASUREMENTS

BOX 5 – ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS EGO 1 (CANTON OF BERNE)

BOX 6 – LIST OF PESTICIDES INVESTIGATED BY INNOTECH ALBERTA

BOX 7 – TIME SERIES OF ELEMENTS

BOX 8 – STRATIGRAPHY AND PARTICLE SIZE ANALYSIS

BOX 9 – CONCENTRATIONS OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN GROUNDWATER

22 REFERENCES

23 EXERCISE SOLUTIONS

24 ABOUT THE AUTHORS