The Groundwater Project

History and Hydraulics of Flowing Wells

History and Hydraulics of Flowing Wells
Ano de publicação: 2024
Número de páginas: 72

978-1-77470-061-7

Autores:

Xiao-wei Jiang: China University of Geosciences, China
John Cherry: Morwick G360 Groundwater Research Institute, Canada

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Released: 31 January 2024

Descrição

Because flowing wells are spectacular visual evidence of groundwater occurrence, they became the impetus for both qualitative and quantitative groundwater science. The pursuit of answers to fundamental questions generated by flowing wells in confined aquifers bounded by aquitards moved the science forward for more than a century until pumping became the main form of groundwater development.

Since the turn of the 20th century, flowing wells in unconfined aquifers were an impetus for the paradigm shift from aquitard-bound flow to cross-formational flow driven by topography. In this book, the histories of drilling flowing wells in France, the US, Canada, and China—which led to important findings on hydraulics of flowing wells—are summarized. The occurrence of flowing wells in confined aquifers, unconfined aquifers and semi-confined aquifers are demonstrated by showing the corresponding forms of topography-driven groundwater flow from recharge to discharge areas in different aquifers.

This book introduces classic models of steady-state and transient discharge rates from flowing wells without considering basinal groundwater flow fields as proposed by Dupuit (1863), Jacob and Lohman (1952), and Hantush (1959). Recent models of transient and steady-state discharge rates of flowing wells that consider basinal groundwater flow fields—which led to a clear understanding of sources of water derived in flowing wells—are also introduced. By providing a comprehensive description of flowing wells, this book is useful not only to understanding hydraulics of flowing wells, but also to understanding the history of groundwater science.

Conteúdo

1 INTRODUCTION

2 TERMINOLOGY OF FLOWING WELLS AND AQUIFERS

2.1 Flowing Wells

2.2 Aquifers/Aquitards

2.3 Confined, Semiconfined, and Unconfined Water/Aquifers

3 MID-NINETEENTH CENTURY FLUID MECHANICS, HYDROLOGY, AND GROUNDWATER CIRCULATION

3.1 Fluid Mechanics

3.2 Hydrological Cycle

3.3 Early Explanations of Flowing Wells and Groundwater Circulation

3.4 Darcy and Dupuit’s Education and Working Experience

4 UNDERSTANDING OF CONDITIONS OF FLOWING WELLS IN SELECT COUNTRIES SINCE THE 1800s

4.1 France

4.2 Great Britain

4.3 The United States of America

4.4 Australia

4.5 Canada

4.6 China

4.7 Summary and Implications

5 GROUNDWATER FLOW PATTERNS AND CONDITIONS FOR FLOWING WELLS

5.1 In Confined Aquifers

5.2 In Thick Unconfined Aquifers

5.3 In Semi-Confined Aquifers

6 HYDRAULICS OF FLOWING WELLS IN A CONFINED AQUIFER WITH A FLAT INITIAL POTENTIOMETRIC SURFACE

6.1 Steady State Discharge Rate of Flowing Wells in Confined Aquifers

6.2 Transient Discharge Rate of Flowing Wells in Infinite Confined Aquifers

7 HYDRAULICS OF FLOWING WELLS IN SEMI CONFINED AQUIFERS WITH A FLAT POTENTIOMETRIC SURFACE

7.1 Transient Discharge Rate

7.2 Steady State Discharge Rate

8 HYDRAULICS OF FLOWING WELLS IN BASINS WITH A BACKGROUND BASINAL FLOW FIELD

8.1 Transient Discharge Rate and Water Sources in a Semi-Confined Aquifer of a Layered Basin

8.2 Vertical Profiles of Discharge Rate in Flowing Wells with Long Screens

9 WRAP-UP

10 EXERCISES

11 REFERENCES

12 BOXES

Box 1 Terms Used for Flowing Wells in 33 Textbooks

Box 2 The Mathematical Model and Solution of a Transient Discharge Rate of Flowing Wells in Infinite Confined Aquifers

Box 3 The Mathematical Model of a Transient Discharge Rate of Flowing Wells in Semi-Confined Aquifers with a Flat Potentiometric Surface

13 EXERCISE SOLUTIONS

14 ABOUT THE AUTHORS

Interview with the Authors