The Groundwater Project

Properties of Organic Contaminants

Properties of organic contaminants COVER
Ano de publicação: 2024
Número de páginas: 139

978-1-77470-098-3

Autores:

Doug Mackay, University of California Davis, USA
Richelle Allen-King, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, USA
Bill Rixey, University of Houston, USA

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Released: 8 May, 2024

Descrição

This book provides an overview of information and concepts about organic chemicals and contaminants that groundwater scientists and engineers should become familiar with to understand other books issued by The Groundwater Project as well as the scientific literature, government reports, government guidance, and consultants’ reports on groundwater contamination and remediation. It is written by university professors with specialties in groundwater contamination, remediation, field and laboratory experimentation, groundwater hydrogeology, chemical engineering, and computer simulation of groundwater transport and fate processes. All the authors taught graduate classes addressing the topics within this book and collaborated with many groundwater scientists on research projects to improve our knowledge of the processes that control groundwater transport and fate of contaminants. Their aim is to spark interest in the fascinating nature and fate of organic chemicals which have become broadly distributed in the environment, and lead readers to build on this knowledge to improve the management of these chemicals and reduce—ideally eliminate—the risks they pose.

Interview with the Authors

Conteúdo

1 ORGANIC CHEMICAL CLASSES AND STRUCTURES

1.1 FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1.2 Organic Chemicals Contain Carbon Atoms Bonded to Other Atoms

1.3 Hydrocarbons Contain Only Hydrogen and Carbon

1.4 Alkanes and Halogenated Alkanes

1.5 Alkenes and Halogenated Alkenes

1.6 Aromatics and Halogenated Aromatics

1.7 Other Important Classes of Organic Compounds

2 PURE CHEMICAL STATES

2.1 Why Do We Care about Chemical States?

2.2 Solid, Liquid, and Gas Phases

2.3 Transitions between Solid, Liquid, and Gas Phases of a Pure Compound

2.4 Melting and Boiling Points

2.5 Densities

3 POLARITY OF BONDS AND MOLECULES

3.1 Why Do We Care about Polarity?

3.2 What Is Polarity?

3.3 Polar and Nonpolar Molecules

3.4 Polar and Nonpolar Surface Areas of Molecules

3.5 Intermolecular Forces

4 VISCOSITY

4.1 Why Do We Need to Know about Viscosity?

4.2 What Is Viscosity?

5 SURFACE TENSION

5.1 Why Do We Need to Know about Surface Tension?

5.2 What Is Surface Tension?

6 VAPOR PRESSURE

6.1 Why Do We Need to Know about Vapor Pressure?

6.2 What Is Vapor Pressure?

6.3 Units for Vapor Pressure

6.4 Conceptualization for Variation in Psat

6.5 Conversion of Vapor Pressure to Concentration

6.6 Vapor Pressure Rises with Temperature

6.7 Vapor Pressure for Components in Mixtures of Organic Liquids

6.8 Vapor Pressure for Binary Mixtures of Organic Liquids

6.9 Vapor Pressure for Ternary Mixtures of Organic Liquids

6.10 Vapor Pressure for Mixtures of Organic Liquids and Organic Solids

7 AQUEOUS SOLUBILITY

7.1 Why Do We Need to Know about Aqueous Solubility (Water Solubility)?

7.2 Some Organic Liquids Can Mix with Water and Some Cannot

7.3 Aqueous Solubility of Neutral Organics: Single Component Gases, Liquids, and Solids

7.4 Aqueous Solubilities of Pure Organic Compounds

7.5 Conceptualization of Solubilization of Organic Gases, CMOSs, and Organic Liquids

7.6 Effect of Solution Conditions on Solubility of Hydrophobic Organic Chemicals (HOCs)

7.7 Effects of Organic Co solvents and/or Co solutes on Solubility of HOCs

7.8 Aqueous Solubility of Hydrophobic Ionizable Organic Chemicals (HIOCs)

7.9 Aqueous Solubility for Mixtures of Organic Liquids

7.10 Aqueous Solubility for Mixtures of Organic Liquids and Organic Solids

8 AIR–WATER PARTITIONING

8.1 Why Do We Need to Know about Air–Water Partitioning?

8.2 What is Air–Water Partitioning?

9 OCTANOL-WATER PARTITIONING

9.1 Why is Octanol–Water Partitioning Important?

9.2 What Is Octanol–Water Partitioning?

10 PARTITIONING BETWEEN WATER AND SURFACTANTS OR SURFACTANT RELATED PHASES

10.1 Why Do We Care about Surfactants?

10.2 What Is a Surfactant?

10.3 How Do Surfactants Affect the Solubilization of HOCs?

10.4 More Complex Situations Involving Surfactants

11 PARTITIONING BETWEEN DISSOLVED NATURAL ORGANIC MATTER (DOM) AND WATER

11.1 Why Do We Care about Partitioning of Organic Contaminants from Water to DOM?

11.2 What Is DOM?

11.3 How Strong Is Partitioning of Contaminants from Water to DOM?

11.4 Conclusion about Partitioning of Contaminants from Water to DOM

12 SORPTION: PARTITIONING BETWEEN GEOSORBENTS AND WATER

12.1 Why Do We Care about Partitioning of Contaminants to Geosorbents?

12.2 What Do We Mean by Geosorbents?

12.3 What Is Sorption?

12.4 Simplest Conceptualization of Sorption and the Sorption Coefficient

12.5 The Most Common Conceptual Model for Sorption of HOCs

12.6 What Is Solid Organic Matter?

12.7 Is Sorption of HOCs Rapid, Linear, and Reversible?

12.8 Estimating the Sorption Coefficient Kd of an HOC

12.9 Impact of Sorption on the Distribution of HOCs in Granular Porous Media

12.10 Summary Regarding Sorption of HOCs by Geosorbents

13 WRAP-UP

14 EXERCISES

15 REFERENCES

16 BOXES

Box 1 Density, Melting Point and Boiling Point for Selected Compounds

Box 2 Calculating Vapor Concentration from Vapor Pressure

Box 3 Dependence of Vapor Pressure on Temperature

Box 4 Hydrophobic Ionizable Organic Chemicals (HIOC): Prevalence of Neutral and Ionized Species

Box 5 Additional Information about Henry’s Constant

Box 6 Bioconcentration: Macro and Micro

17 EXERCISE SOLUTIONS

18 ABOUT THE AUTHORS