Differences in groundwater density are caused by variations in solute concentrations and/or temperature. Density-driven flow is important across a range of groundwater settings but its significance and complexity is sometimes underestimated. This book summarizes the main causes for, and manifestations of density-driven flow, in groundwater systems. Techniques used to understand, conceptualize, model, predict, and measure density-driven flow in groundwater are described.
Theoretical and experimental matters (including field-based investigations) are dealt with. Guidelines for assessing when density effects become important and corrections that are needed to correctly infer groundwater flow in systems where the density varies are discussed. The book highlights the difficulties and possibilities of simulating variable-density groundwater systems using numerical models.
It describes the challenges and opportunities for measuring density-driven flow directly in field-based groundwater settings. It also discusses some areas of ongoing research and debate.
Interview with Authors