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A Conceptual Overview of Surface and Near‑Surface Brines and Evaporite Minerals

Book Cover for A Conceptual Overview of Surface and Near-Surface Brines and Evaporite Minerals

Publication year: 2021
Number of pages: 37
ISBN: 978‑1‑77470‑021‑1

Author:
Warren W. WoodMichigan State University, USA

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Updated: 11 January 2022

Book Description

Although few of us will personally experience the arid environments discussed in this book, these terrains cover nearly 20% of the continental surface of the Earth. They form in response to a combination of arid or semi-arid climate and a topography that results in the pervasive formation of brine and associated mineral deposits. The salts originate as dissolved solids in the rainfall and from the weathering of minerals as the rain infiltrates in the uplands and flows as groundwater to discharge in the lowlands where salt accumulates. The story sounds simple but understanding the formation of the mineral species and solutes within the hydrologic landscape is complex. The minerals that develop are a function of the input of dissolved constituents, leakage of solutes from the basin, thermodynamic state of the brines, water vapor content of the atmosphere, and the dynamic interplay between hydrology and thermodynamics with varying temperature driving the resulting mineral assemblages.

Contents

1 INTRODUCTION

2 EVAPORATION

3 SOURCE OF SOLUTES

4 HYDROLOGICAL SYSTEMS

4.1 Chemically Closed Systems

4.2 Chemically Open Leaky Systems

5 TEMPERATURE CONTROL OF MINERAL DEPOSITION

6 FLUID DYNAMICS OF SALINE SYSTEMS

7 GAS LOSSES

8 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

9 CONCEPTS TO CONSIDER

Conceptual Consideration 1
Conceptual Consideration 2
Conceptual Consideration 3
Conceptual Consideration 4
Conceptual Consideration 5

10 REFERENCES

11 POSSIBLE RESPONSES FOR CONCEPTS TO CONSIDER

Response To Concept 1, One Of Many Possible Responses
Response To Concept 2, One Of Many Possible Responses
Response To Concept 3, One Of Many Possible Responses
Response To Concept 4, One Of Many Possible Responses
Response To Concept 5, One Of Many Possible Responses

12 ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Interview with Author