The Groundwater Project

Geophysical Logging For Hydrogeology

Geophysical Logging for Hydrogeology
Publication year: 2023
Number of pages: 79

ISBN: 978-1-77470-082-2

Authors:

John H. Williams: United States Geological Survey, USA
Frederick L. Paillet: United States Geological Survey and University of Arkansas, USA

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Last Update: 19 January 2024​
Released: 6 November 2023

Description

Geophysical logging is the measurement and analysis of electrical, acoustic, nuclear, and other physical properties in a borehole using wireline or direct push technology. Geophysical logging is one of the primary methods of collecting subsurface information for hydrogeologic investigations. Groundwater scientists and engineers should have a basic understanding of borehole geophysics and how it is applied in the characterization of aquifer systems.

In this book, the different types of geophysical logs and equipment used in hydrogeologic investigations are reviewed. Applications and analysis methods are illustrated by specific examples in both unconsolidated deposits and bedrock settings. Key references for further exploration of the methods and applications are provided. Hands-on exercises are included for students to develop and practice log-analysis skills.

Interview with Authors

Contents

1 INTRODUCTION

2 GEOPHYSICAL LOGGING METHODS AND EQUIPMENT

3 GEOPHYSICAL LOGS

3.1 Drilling Logs

3.2 Direct Push Logs

3.3 Construction Logs

3.4 Petrophysical Logs

3.4.1 Gamma Logs
3.4.2 Acoustic Logs
3.4.3 Neutron logs
3.4.4 Electric Logs
3.4.5 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Logs

3.5 Image Logs

3.6 Fluid Property Logs

3.7 Flow Logs

4 INTEGRATING GEOPHYSICAL LOGS AND OTHER BOREHOLE MEASUREMENTS

5 INTEGRATING GEOPHYSICAL LOGS AND SURFACE GEOPHYSICS

6 WRAP UP

7 EXERCISES

8 REFERENCES

9 BOXES

BOX 1 – Cone Penetration Testing for Geotechnical Investigations

BOX 2 – Nuclear Randomness and Filtering of Gamma Log Data

BOX 3 – Use of Gamma Logs for Defining Lithology and Stratigraphy

BOX 4 – Use Of Gamma Logs for Monitoring Well Completion in Unconsolidated Aquifers

BOX 5 – Geophysical Log Analysis of an Appalachian Basin Borehole

Box 5.1 Data Collected at the Site
Box 5.2 Data Analysis
Box 5.3 The Huntley Mountain Formation Flow Zones
Box 5.4 The Catskill Formation Flow Zones
Box 5.5 Case Study: Formation Water Salinity in the Huntley Mountain and Catskill Formations

BOX 6 – Use of Gamma, Electric, and Induction Logs for Defining Lithology and Salinity

BOX 7 – USe of Flow Logs for Hydraulic Property Analysis

BOX 8 – Relating Gamma Log and Core Porosity

10 EXERCISE SOLUTIONS

11 NOTATIONS

12 ABOUT THE AUTHORS