The Groundwater Project

Fractures and Faults in Sandstone and Sandstone-Shale/Mudstone Sequences and Their Impact on Groundwater

Book Cover for Fractures and Faults in Sandstone and Sandstone-Shale/Mudstone Sequences and Their Impact on Groundwater
Publication year: 2023
Number of pages: 69

ISBN: 978-1-77470-012-9
doi.org/10.21083/978-1-77470-012-9

Authors:

Atilla Aydin: Stanford University, USA
Ramil Ahmadov: University of Houston, USA
Marco Antonellini: University of Bologna, Italy
John Cherry: Guelph University, Canada
Antonino Cilona: Shell Global Solutions, The Netherlands
Shang Deng: Sinopec Research Institute, China
Eric Flodin: Chevron Corporation, USA
Ghislain de Joussineau: Beicip Franlab, France
Beth Parker: University of Guelph, Canada
Jian Zhong: Cisco Systems, USA

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Last Update: 30 January 2023​
Released: 17 January 2023

Description

Throughout the world, large aquifers occur in fractured siliciclastic rocks, primarily in sandstones and secondarily in sandstone-shale intercalations. Fractures in these rocks can result in extremely high velocity and volume of fluid flow, thus are critical for evaluating groundwater systems. There are many structural relationships among the various fracture types such as deformation bands, joints, and large faults, and each fracture type has a wide range of physical properties. This book focusses on the properties most relevant to groundwater science such as permeability, porosity, as well as fracture length and frequency (density).

Due to the variability and complex influence of siliciclastic rock fractures on groundwater flow, characterizing such fractures poses a great challenge to hydrogeologists and engineers. Although remote detection methods with limited resolution are available for fracture characterization, gaining direct knowledge of failure structures in siliciclastic rocks, including architecture, distribution, and fluid flow properties is effective for assessing their impact on groundwater flow.

Contents

1 INTRODUCTION

2 A SIMPLE WAY OF DEFINING AND RECOGNIZING COMMON FRACTURE TYPES

3 JOINTS

4 SHEAR FRACTURES OR FAULTS

5 DEFORMATION BANDS

6 FRACTURE ZONES

6.1 Joint Zones

6.2 Compaction Band Zones

6.3 Shear Band Zones

6.4 Fault Zones

7 FRACTURE SETS

7.1 Single Joint Sets

7.2 Multiple Joint Sets

8 DEFORMATION BAND SETS

9 COMPACTION BANDS AND PERMEABILITY UPSCALING

10 SHEAR BAND SETS AND THEIR CONJUGATE PATTERNS

11 MULTIPLE FAULT SETS

12 SANDSTONE SHALE SEQUENCES

13 SHALE ENTRAPMENT INTO FAULT ZONES (SHALE SMEARING) AND FLOW IMPACT

14 WRAP UP

15 EXERCISES

16 REFERENCES

17 BOXES

Box 1 Splay Fractures Associated with Strike Slip Faults and Their Properties

Box 2 Properties of Slip Bands

Box 3 Outcomes from the Santa Susana Field Laboratory

18 EXERCISE SOLUTIONS

19 ABOUT THE AUTHORS

Interview with Authors